r1 = outer radius
C1 = outer circumference
L1 = outer surface area
V1 = volume within C1
r2 = inner radius
C2 = inner circumference
L2 = inner surface area
V2 = volume within C2
h = height
t = wall thickness
V = volume of solid
A = end surface area
π = pi = 3.14159
√ = square root
This calculator will calculate the various properties of a tube, also called a pipe or hollow cylinder, given 3 know values from variables of radii, circumference, wall thickness and height. A geometric solid tube is generally a cylinder with an end profile represented by an annulus.
* Units: Note that units are shown for convenience but do not affect the calculations. The units are in place to give an indication of the order of the results such as ft, ft2 or ft3. For example, if you are starting with mm and you know r and h in mm, your calculations will result with C in mm, V in mm3, L in mm2, and A in mm2.
Below are the standard formulas for a tube. Calculations are based on algebraic manipulation of these standard formulas.
Tube Formulas in terms of radius and height, r and h:
- Circumference, C:
- generally C = 2πr, therefore,
- C1 = 2πr1
- C2 = 2πr2
- Lateral Surface Area, L, for a cylinder:
- generally L = C * h = 2πrh, therefore,
- L1 = 2πr1h, the external surface area
- L2 = 2πr2h, the internal surface area
- Area, A, for the end cross section of the tube:
- generally A = πr2, for a circle, therefore,
- A1 = πr12 for the area enclosed by C1
- A2 = πr22 for the area enclosed by C2
- A = A1 - A2 for the area of the solid cross section of the tube, the end.
- A = π(r12 - r22)
- Volume, V, for a cylinder:
- generally V = A * h = πr2h, therefore,
- V1 = πr12h for the volume enclosed by C1
- V2 = πr22h for the volume enclosed by C2
- V = V1 - V2 for the volume of the solid, the tube.
- V = π(r12 - r22)h
- Thickness of the tube wall, t:
- t = r1 - r2